“Diabetes is not a choice, but being carefree it is. Let’s choose to navigate the health to the better path”

Title: The Alarming Effects of Diabetes: Types, Diagnosis, Complication, and Management


Diabetes is a long-term medical disorder marked by elevated blood glucose (sugar) levels. It happens when the body cannot properly use the insulin it generates, or when it produces too little of it. Insulin is a hormone that controls blood glucose levels and promotes the transport of glucose into cells for cellular energy production.


Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes (Insulin-dependent diabetes):

Insulin-dependent diabetes, or type 1 diabetes, is an autoimmune illness that arises from the body’s immune system attacking and destroying the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. The body is consequently unable to manufacture insulin, which is required to control blood sugar levels. Although it can strike at any age, type 1 diabetes typically manifests in childhood or adolescence.

Type 2 Diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes):

The condition known as type 2 diabetes, or non-insulin dependent diabetes, is characterized by an insufficient or resistant response to insulin by the body. Poor food choices, obesity, and physical inactivity are among the lifestyle variables that are frequently linked to this kind of diabetes. Although it is more common in adults, type 2 diabetes can also strike children and teenagers.

Gestational Diabetes:

Pregnancy causes the development of gestational diabetes, which often goes away after delivering. It happens when the body can’t make enough insulin to fulfil the higher demand that comes with being pregnant. In addition to raising the chance of problems during pregnancy and childbirth, gestational diabetes can also raise the chance of Type 2 diabetes in later life.


Some common symptoms of diabetes include:

  • Increased thirst and hunger
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing sores or frequent infections
  • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
  • Unexplained weight loss

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES: These three are typical ones:

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG):

The FPG test, or fasting plasma glucose test, measures your blood sugar level following an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level of 99 mg/dL or less is considered normal; a level of 100 to 125 mg/dL is indicative of prediabetes; You may be diagnosed with diabetes if your fasting blood sugar level is 126 mg/dL or greater on two different occasions.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT):

This test involves the consumption of a saccharine solution, followed by a two-hour blood sugar measurement. Your blood sugar level may indicate diabetes if it is 200 mg/dL or greater.

Hemoglobin A1C Test (HbA1C):

The HbA1C test measures your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. If your HbA1C level is 6.5% or higher, you may be diagnosed with diabetes.


Cardiovascular complication:

  • Heart Disease: Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and strokes.
  • Hypertension: People with diabetes are more likely to have high blood pressure, which raises their risk of heart issues.

Kidney Complication:

  • Diabetic Nephropathy: Diabetes over time can cause kidney damage that can progress to renal failure in extreme circumstances.
  • Urinary Tract Infections: Elevated blood sugar levels might facilitate the growth of germs in the urinary tract, increasing the likelihood of recurrent infections.

Eye Complication:

  • Diabetic Retinopathy: Impairment of the retina’s blood vessels may result in blindness or other visual issues.
  • Cataracts: Cataracts are a clouding of the eye’s lens that may result in blurred vision.
  • Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve.

Nerve Complication:

  • Diabetic Neuropathy: Elevated blood sugar levels can harm nerves, resulting in pain, tingling, and numbness, frequently in the hands and feet.

Foot Complication:

  • Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Diabetic foot ulcers can arise from nerve damage and poor circulation. If these ulcers are not treated, it can lead to serious infection and in the worst case, amputation.
  • Charcot Foot: a disorder where the foot’s bones deteriorate and may eventually break.


Diabetes must be managed holistically, with medical management, lifestyle modification, blood sugar monitoring, education, and support.

Medical management:

Metformin: This medication decreases blood sugar and increases insulin sensitivity, making it a popular first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes.

Sulfonylureas: These medications encourage the production of more insulin by the pancreas.

DPP-4 Inhibitors: By stopping the incretin hormones from being broken down, they aid in blood sugar regulation.

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: These drugs slow stomach emptying, reduce hunger, and enhance insulin production.

SGLT-2 Inhibitors: They encourage the urine’s ability to excrete sugar.

Insulin: Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas which helps in regulating the blood glucose level. There are various forms of insulin, including Rapid-Acting Insulin, Short-Acting Insulin, Intermediate-Acting Insulin, and Long-Acting Insulin.

Lifestyle Modification:

Healthy Eating: Blood sugar levels can be regulated by eating a balanced diet that includes a range of nutrient-dense foods, limiting portion sizes, and keeping an eye on carbohydrate intake.

Frequent Physical Activity: Maintaining a healthy weight, controlling blood sugar levels, and improving insulin sensitivity are all aided by regular exercise or physical activity.

Weight Control: Regaining and sustaining a healthy weight can help with insulin sensitivity and diabetes management in general.


In conclusion, diabetes is a serious condition that requires ongoing management and care. By following a healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and taking medication as prescribed, individuals with diabetes can live healthy, active lives and reduce their risk of complications. If you have any concerns about diabetes or your health, speak to your healthcare provider for guidance and support and always do regular health checkups.